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What is pulmonary valve stenosis?

Over time, the opening in a heart valve can become narrow due to a collection of calcium deposits. When the valve narrows, the heart does not pump as well. Valvular stenosis can affect the heart’s aortic, mitral, pulmonary or tricuspid valves. The pulmonary valve separates the right ventricle (lower chamber) and the pulmonary artery, which carries blood to the lungs to be oxygenated. With pulmonary valve stenosis, blood flow from the heart to the lungs is slowed because of a defect on or near the pulmonary valve.

Whether the condition is mild or serious, it is a rare disorder. A mild case most likely will not get worse. However, cases of moderate to severe disease will. Other congenital heart defects also may affect the situation.

Symptoms

If your condition is asymptomatic, your doctor may recommend evaluation to manage the disease. Often, mild pulmonary stenosis is not accompanied by symptoms. If the stenosis is moderate to severe, symptoms may include:

  • Distended abdomen
  • Bluish skin color (cyanosis)
  • Chest pain
  • Fainting
  • Fatigue
  • Poor weight gain or failure to thrive (in infants with a severe blockage)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sudden death

Exercise or other activity may cause symptoms to worsen.

Causes

The exact cause is unknown, but genes may be involved. Sometimes the problem runs in families.

Diagnosis

Most of the time this condition develops before birth, and will be discovered when a physical exam reveals a heart murmur.

Tests used to diagnose pulmonary stenosis may include:

  • Cardiac catheterization
  • Chest X-ray
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG)
  • Echocardiogram (echo)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the heart

Your healthcare provider will evaluate the severity of the stenosis in planning treatment.

Source: https://lenoxhill.northwell.edu/lenox-hill-heart-lung/cardiology/find-care/conditions/pulmonary-valve-stenosis